MANDOC(3) Library Functions Manual MANDOC(3)

NAME

mandoc, deroff, mandocmsg, man_mparse, man_validate, mdoc_validate, mparse_alloc, mparse_free, mparse_getkeep, mparse_keep, mparse_open, mparse_readfd, mparse_reset, mparse_result, mparse_strerror, mparse_strlevel, mparse_updatercmandoc macro compiler library

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <mandoc.h>

#define ASCII_NBRSP
#define ASCII_HYPH
#define ASCII_BREAK
struct mparse *
mparse_alloc(int options, enum mandoclevel wlevel, mandocmsg mmsg, char *defos);
void
(*mandocmsg)(enum mandocerr errtype, enum mandoclevel level, const char *file, int line, int col, const char *msg);
void
mparse_free(struct mparse *parse);
const char *
mparse_getkeep(const struct mparse *parse);
void
mparse_keep(struct mparse *parse);
int
mparse_open(struct mparse *parse, const char *fname);
enum mandoclevel
mparse_readfd(struct mparse *parse, int fd, const char *fname);
void
mparse_reset(struct mparse *parse);
void
mparse_result(struct mparse *parse, struct roff_man **man, char **sodest);
const char *
mparse_strerror(enum mandocerr);
const char *
mparse_strlevel(enum mandoclevel);
void
mparse_updaterc(struct mparse *parse, enum mandoclevel *rc);
#include <roff.h>
void
deroff(char **dest, const struct roff_node *node);
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <mandoc.h>
#include <mdoc.h>
extern const char * const * mdoc_argnames;
extern const char * const * mdoc_macronames;
void
mdoc_validate(struct roff_man *mdoc);
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <mandoc.h>
#include <man.h>
extern const char * const * man_macronames;
const struct mparse *
man_mparse(const struct roff_man *man);
void
man_validate(struct roff_man *man);

DESCRIPTION

The mandoc library parses a UNIX manual into an abstract syntax tree (AST). UNIX manuals are composed of mdoc(7) or man(7), and may be mixed with roff(7), tbl(7), and eqn(7) invocations.
The following describes a general parse sequence:
  1. initiate a parsing sequence with mchars_alloc(3) and mparse_alloc();
  2. open a file with open(2) or mparse_open();
  3. parse it with mparse_readfd();
  4. close it with close(2);
  5. retrieve the syntax tree with mparse_result();
  6. depending on whether the macroset member of the returned struct roff_man is MACROSET_MDOC or MACROSET_MAN, validate it with mdoc_validate() or man_validate(), respectively;
  7. if information about the validity of the input is needed, fetch it with mparse_updaterc();
  8. iterate over parse nodes with starting from the first member of the returned struct roff_man;
  9. free all allocated memory with mparse_free() and mchars_free(3), or invoke mparse_reset() and go back to step 2 to parse new files.

REFERENCE

This section documents the functions, types, and variables available via <mandoc.h>, with the exception of those documented in mandoc_escape(3) and mchars_alloc(3).

Types

enum mandocerr
An error or warning message during parsing.
enum mandoclevel
A classification of an enum mandocerr as regards system operation. See the DIAGNOSTICS section in mandoc(1) regarding the meanings of the levels.
struct mparse
An opaque pointer to a running parse sequence. Created with mparse_alloc() and freed with mparse_free(). This may be used across parsed input if mparse_reset() is called between parses.
mandocmsg
A prototype for a function to handle error and warning messages emitted by the parser.

Functions

deroff()
Obtain a text-only representation of a struct roff_node, including text contained in its child nodes. To be used on children of the first member of struct roff_man. When it is no longer needed, the pointer returned from deroff() can be passed to free(3).
man_mparse()
Get the parser used for the current output. Declared in <man.h>, implemented in man.c.
man_validate()
Validate the MACROSET_MAN parse tree obtained with mparse_result(). Declared in <man.h>, implemented in man.c.
mdoc_validate()
Validate the MACROSET_MDOC parse tree obtained with mparse_result(). Declared in <mdoc.h>, implemented in mdoc.c.
mparse_alloc()
Allocate a parser. The arguments have the following effect:
 
 
options
When the MPARSE_MDOC or MPARSE_MAN bit is set, only that parser is used. Otherwise, the document type is automatically detected.
When the MPARSE_SO bit is set, roff(7) so file inclusion requests are always honoured. Otherwise, if the request is the only content in an input file, only the file name is remembered, to be returned in the sodest argument of mparse_result().
When the MPARSE_QUICK bit is set, parsing is aborted after the NAME section. This is for example useful in makewhatis(8) -Q to quickly build minimal databases.
 
 
wlevel
Can be set to MANDOCLEVEL_BADARG, MANDOCLEVEL_ERROR, or MANDOCLEVEL_WARNING. Messages below the selected level will be suppressed.
 
 
mmsg
A callback function to handle errors and warnings. See main.c for an example. If printing of error messages is not desired, NULL may be passed.
 
 
defos
A default string for the mdoc(7) ‘Os’ macro, overriding the OSNAME preprocessor definition and the results of uname(3). Passing NULL sets no default.
The same parser may be used for multiple files so long as mparse_reset() is called between parses. mparse_free() must be called to free the memory allocated by this function. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_free()
Free all memory allocated by mparse_alloc(). Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_getkeep()
Acquire the keep buffer. Must follow a call of mparse_keep(). Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_keep()
Instruct the parser to retain a copy of its parsed input. This can be acquired with subsequent mparse_getkeep() calls. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_open()
Open the file for reading. If that fails and fname does not already end in ‘.gz’, try again after appending ‘.gz’. Save the information whether the file is zipped or not. Return a file descriptor open for reading or -1 on failure. It can be passed to mparse_readfd() or used directly. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_readfd()
Parse a file descriptor opened with open(2) or mparse_open(). Pass the associated filename in fname. This function may be called multiple times with different parameters; however, close(2) and mparse_reset() should be invoked between parses. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_reset()
Reset a parser so that mparse_readfd() may be used again. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_result()
Obtain the result of a parse. One of the two pointers will be filled in. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_strerror()
Return a statically-allocated string representation of an error code. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_strlevel()
Return a statically-allocated string representation of a level code. Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.
mparse_updaterc()
If the highest warning or error level that occurred during the current parse is higher than *rc, update *rc accordingly. This is useful after calling mdoc_validate() or man_validate(). Declared in <mandoc.h>, implemented in read.c.

Variables

man_macronames
The string representation of a man(7) macro as indexed by enum mant.
mdoc_argnames
The string representation of an mdoc(7) macro argument as indexed by enum mdocargt.
mdoc_macronames
The string representation of an mdoc(7) macro as indexed by enum mdoct.

IMPLEMENTATION NOTES

This section consists of structural documentation for mdoc(7) and man(7) syntax trees and strings.

Man and Mdoc Strings

Strings may be extracted from mdoc and man meta-data, or from text nodes (MDOC_TEXT and MAN_TEXT, respectively). These strings have special non-printing formatting cues embedded in the text itself, as well as roff(7) escapes preserved from input. Implementing systems will need to handle both situations to produce human-readable text. In general, strings may be assumed to consist of 7-bit ASCII characters.
The following non-printing characters may be embedded in text strings:
 
 
ASCII_NBRSP
A non-breaking space character.
 
 
ASCII_HYPH
A soft hyphen.
 
 
ASCII_BREAK
A breakable zero-width space.
Escape characters are also passed verbatim into text strings. An escape character is a sequence of characters beginning with the backslash (‘\’). To construct human-readable text, these should be intercepted with mandoc_escape(3) and converted with one the functions described in mchars_alloc(3).

Man Abstract Syntax Tree

This AST is governed by the ontological rules dictated in man(7) and derives its terminology accordingly.
The AST is composed of struct roff_node nodes with element, root and text types as declared by the type field. Each node also provides its parse point (the line, pos, and sec fields), its position in the tree (the parent, child, next and prev fields) and some type-specific data.
The tree itself is arranged according to the following normal form, where capitalised non-terminals represent nodes.
ROOT
← mnode+
mnode
← ELEMENT | TEXT | BLOCK
BLOCK
← HEAD BODY
HEAD
← mnode*
BODY
← mnode*
ELEMENT
← ELEMENT | TEXT*
TEXT
← [[:ascii:]]*
The only elements capable of nesting other elements are those with next-line scope as documented in man(7).

Mdoc Abstract Syntax Tree

This AST is governed by the ontological rules dictated in mdoc(7) and derives its terminology accordingly. “In-line” elements described in mdoc(7) are described simply as “elements”.
The AST is composed of struct roff_node nodes with block, head, body, element, root and text types as declared by the type field. Each node also provides its parse point (the line, pos, and sec fields), its position in the tree (the parent, child, last, next and prev fields) and some type-specific data, in particular, for nodes generated from macros, the generating macro in the tok field.
The tree itself is arranged according to the following normal form, where capitalised non-terminals represent nodes.
ROOT
← mnode+
mnode
← BLOCK | ELEMENT | TEXT
BLOCK
← HEAD [TEXT] (BODY [TEXT])+ [TAIL [TEXT]]
ELEMENT
← TEXT*
HEAD
← mnode*
BODY
← mnode* [ENDBODY mnode*]
TAIL
← mnode*
TEXT
← [[:ascii:]]*
Of note are the TEXT nodes following the HEAD, BODY and TAIL nodes of the BLOCK production: these refer to punctuation marks. Furthermore, although a TEXT node will generally have a non-zero-length string, in the specific case of ‘.Bd -literal’, an empty line will produce a zero-length string. Multiple body parts are only found in invocations of ‘Bl -column’, where a new body introduces a new phrase.
The mdoc(7) syntax tree accommodates for broken block structures as well. The ENDBODY node is available to end the formatting associated with a given block before the physical end of that block. It has a non-null end field, is of the BODY type, has the same tok as the BLOCK it is ending, and has a pending field pointing to that BLOCK's BODY node. It is an indirect child of that BODY node and has no children of its own.
An ENDBODY node is generated when a block ends while one of its child blocks is still open, like in the following example:
.Ao ao 
.Bo bo ac 
.Ac bc 
.Bc end
This example results in the following block structure:
BLOCK Ao 
    HEAD Ao 
    BODY Ao 
        TEXT ao 
        BLOCK Bo, pending -> Ao 
            HEAD Bo 
            BODY Bo 
                TEXT bo 
                TEXT ac 
                ENDBODY Ao, pending -> Ao 
                TEXT bc 
TEXT end
Here, the formatting of the ‘Ao’ block extends from TEXT ao to TEXT ac, while the formatting of the ‘Bo’ block extends from TEXT bo to TEXT bc. It renders as follows in -Tascii mode:
<ao [bo ac> bc] end
Support for badly-nested blocks is only provided for backward compatibility with some older mdoc(7) implementations. Using badly-nested blocks is strongly discouraged; for example, the -Thtml and -Txhtml front-ends to mandoc(1) are unable to render them in any meaningful way. Furthermore, behaviour when encountering badly-nested blocks is not consistent across troff implementations, especially when using multiple levels of badly-nested blocks.

SEE ALSO

mandoc(1), man.cgi(3), mandoc_escape(3), mandoc_headers(3), mandoc_malloc(3), mansearch(3), mchars_alloc(3), tbl(3), eqn(7), man(7), mandoc_char(7), mdoc(7), roff(7), tbl(7)

AUTHORS

The mandoc library was written by Kristaps Dzonsons <kristaps@bsd.lv> and is maintained by Ingo Schwarze <schwarze@openbsd.org>.
January 9, 2017 OpenBSD 5.8